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    WORD     DEFINITION
Bleeding Seepage of oil and preservative from the pole after treatment.
Boultonizing: Drying by heating in a nonaqueous solution under vacuum.
Check: The lengthwise separation of the wood that usually extends across the rings of annual growth and results from the contraction of the circumference of the pole during seasoning.
Class: In reference to the diameter of the pole.
Compression Wood: Abnormal wood formed on the lower side of branches and inclined trunks of softwood (conifers) trees.  Compression wood is identified by its relatively wide annual rings, usually eccentric, relatively large amount of summerwood, sometimes more than 50 percent of the width of the annual rings in which it occurs, and its lack of demarcation between springwood and summerwood in the same annual rings.  Compression wood compared with normal wood, shrinks excessively lengthwise.
Crook/Sweep: Deviations from straightness. (See Figure 1)
Decay:

Incipient: The early stage of decay that has not proceeded far enough to soften or otherwise perceptively impair the hardness of the wood. It is usually accompanied by slight discoloration or bleaching of the wood.

Advanced: The older stage of decay in which the destruction is readily recognized because the wood has become punky, soft and spongy, stringy, pitted, crumbly or, in poles not stored or rafted in water, is in a soggy condition. Decided discoloration or bleaching of the rotted wood is often apparent.

Face of Pole: The concave side of greatest curvature in poles with sweep in one plane and one direction, or the side of greatest curvature between groundline and top in poles having reverse or double sweep.
Freight: Poles can be shipped by several methods, including: rail, flatbed truck, tripstake truck, and self unloading truck. (See Details)
Framing: Holes and gains (flat surfaces) are made near the top of poles prior to treatment to facilitate attachment of crossarms and other hardware.
Groundline Section: That portion of a pole between 1 foot above and 2 feet below the groundline, as defined in the pole dimension tables (See Figure 1).
Heartwood (heart): The inner core of a woody stem wholly composed of non-living cells and usually differentiated from the outer enveloping layer (sapwood) by its darker color.   Heartwood and sapwood are comparable in strength.
Penetration Enhancements: Douglas fir and western cedar are more difficult species to penetrate with preservative than pine, so various techniques are implemented to ensure adequate penetration. The techniques involved are known as incising, and boring (drilling). (See Details)
Pith: The small core in the structural center of a log.
Pole Defects: Since wood poles are a natural product, they are not uniform in shape. Following is a partial list of defects which often occur in poles. If the defect is serious enough, it may render the pole unfit for use: Check, Split, Scar, Shake, Crook/Sweep.
Preservatives: McFarland Cascade treats utility poles with Pentachlorophenol, Creosote, or Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). (See Details)
Pressure Treatment: Treatment of poles in an air tight pressure cylinder, using either the empty cell or full cell process.
Rate of Growth: The amount of tree growth each year expressed as the number of growth rings per inch.
Sap Stain: A discoloration of the sapwood, caused by the action of certain molds and fungi, that is not accompanied by softening or other disintegration of the wood.
Sapwood: The living wood of pale color near the outside of  the log.  Under most conditions the sapwood is more susceptible to decay than heartwood.
Scar: A depression in the surface of the pole resulting from a wound where healing has not reestablished the normal cross section of the pole.
Seasoning: Removal of water from the wood fibers by natural air drying, kiln drying, or Boultonizing. (See Details)
Shake: A separation along the grain, the greater part of which occurs between the rings of annual growth.
Size: Pole lengths are measured in five foot increments. Standard pole diameters (classes) have been established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) based on minimum diameters by species at the top and six feet up from the butt of the pole. ANSI class tables assure that poles in the same class of different species have similar strength characteristics.
Species McFarland Cascade supplies four species of trees for poles, which we believe to be the best: Coastal Douglas Fir, Pinus Sylvestris, Southern Yellow Pine and Western Cedar. (See Details)
Specifications: Although most large utilities have engineering or standards departments and develop their own specifications, the wood pole treating industry recognizes the following standards as minimums: For untreated wood: American National Standards Institute (ANSI 05.1) For treated wood: American Wood Preservers Association (AWPA) Other commonly referenced standards include: Rural Utility System Specification 1728 Federal Specification TTW-572 ASTM Specification D4064-8 (piling) Electric Company of New England Specification (ECNE) Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
Spiral Grain: Wood grain in which the fibers take a spiral course about the trunk of a tree instead of a vertical course.
Split: A lengthwise separation of the wood extending completely through the piece from one surface to another.
Sweep: Deviation of a pole from straightness. (See Figure 1)
Thermal Treatment: A method of treating poles by utilizing two serial applications (or baths) of oil borne preservative
Through-check: A check extending from one surface through the piece to the opposite surface or to an adjoining surface.